četrtek, 1. oktober 2015

Pet zdravil proti žalosti (prevod)

Foto B.C.
Duhovnik Carlo De Marchi, sicer odgovoren za Opus Dei v osrednji in južni Italiji, je v pripravah na letošnji 5. narodni cerkveni shod (Convegno ecclesiale nazionale), ki bo pod naslovom „V Jezusu Kristusu novi humanizem“ potekal novembra v Firencah, podal kratko in simpatično razlago petih zdravil zoper žalost, kot jih svetuje veliki Tomaž Akvinski (1225-1274). Zdravila so:
               1. užitek;
               2. jok;
               3. sočutje prijateljev;
               4. zrenje resnice (lepote);
               5. spanec in kopel.
Izvirnik „I 5 rimedi contro la tristezza“ najdete tukaj. Opombi sta moji. Prijetno branje!


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Pet zdravil proti žalosti
Carlo De Marchi



Vsakdo je že izkusil dneve, v katerih ti ne uspe premagati določene notranje teže, ki okuži vsako duševno stanje ter moti medosebne odnose. Obstaja kakšen trik, da premagamo slabo voljo in pridobimo nazaj nasmeh? Sv. Tomaž Akvinski predlaga pet presenetljivo učinkovitih zdravil proti žalosti.

Prvo zdravilo je kakršni koli užitek. Zdi se, da je ta teolog pred sedmimi stoletji intuitivno dojel, kar je danes precej razširjeno, to je, da lahko čokolada deluje kot antidepresiv. Morebiti imamo pri tem opravka z materialističnim gledanjem, vendar je jasno, da kakšen dan poln grenkobe, lahko pridobi precej točk zahvaljujoč se enemu pivu. Da bi slednje ne bilo skladno z evangelijem, bi bilo potrebno v celoti še dokazati. Vemo, da se je Gospod z veseljem udeleževal kosil in gostij, tako pred kot po vstajenju, in da je cenil mnoge lepe življenjske stvari. Tudi v psalmih najdemo trditev, da vino razveseljuje človekovo srce (čeprav je treba tudi povedati, da Sveto pismo jasno obsoja pijančevanje).

Drugo zdravilo, ki ga predlaga sv. Tomaž Akvinski, je jok. Pogosto je melanholija hujša, če ne uspemo najti načina, da jo sprostimo in razbremenimo. Zgodi se, da se grenkoba nabira do točke, da je težko karkoli storiti. Jok je vrsta govorice, je način, da izrazimo in razvežemo vozel bolečine, ki nas duši. Papež Frančišek je dejal, da se „določene življenjske stvarnosti vidijo samo z očmi, ki so jih umile solze. Vsakega od vas povabim, da se vpraša: sem se naučil jokati?“

Tretje zdravilo je sočutje prijateljev. Spomnimo se Renzijevega prijatelja iz Manzonijevega romana Zaročenca. Prijatelj proti koncu romana pripoveduje o težkih nesrečah, ki so prizadele njegovo družino, in o veliki hiši, ki jo je kuga povsem izpraznila: „Hude reči so to, reči, za katere nisem nikoli verjel, da jih bom videl; reči, ki ti morejo za vse življenje odvzeti veselje. Toda pripovedovati jih prijateljem je že olajšanje.“ Poskusite in verjemite! Ko se počutite na tleh in ste naravnani, da vidite vse sivo, zelo pomaga, da odreagirate in se odprete kakšnemu prijatelju ali znancu. Včasih je dovolj kratko sporočilo, včasih telefonski klic, le da lahko prijatelju pripovedujete ali ga poslušate, in že se obzorje zjasni.

Četrto zdravilo proti žalosti je kontemplacija resnice*, zrenje sijaja resnice - fulgor veritatis, o katerem govori sv. Avguštin. Opazovati lepoto stvari, umetniškega dela, poslušati glasbo, pustiti, da te preseneti lepota krajine,... to je lahko balzam proti žalosti. Neki literarni kritik je povedal, kako je nekaj dni zatem, ko ga je prizadelo močno žalovanje zaradi izgube, moral nekje predavati o Tolkienovi pustolovščini: „Govoriti o lepih stvareh osebam, ki jih to zanima, je bilo pravo olajšanje.“

Peto zdravilo, ki ga predlaga sv. Tomaž Akvinski, je tisto, ki bi ga od srednjeveškega učitelja morda še najmanj pričakovali. Teolog namreč trdi, da je odlično sredstvo proti žalosti naspati se in se okopati. Da je ta nasvet učinkovit, je očitno. Razumevanje, da za odpravo nekega duhovnega zla lahko koristi kakšno telesno pomagalo, je globoko krščansko. Odkar je Bog postal človek, torej odkar je prevzel telo, je v vsem materialnem svetu bila presežena delitev na materijo in duha.

Razširjen je namreč predsodek, da krščanski pogled na človeka temelji na nasprotju med dušo in telesom. Telo naj bi bilo breme in ovira za „duhovno življenje“. V resnici pa krščanski humanizem gleda na osebo (duša in telo) kot v celoti „poduhovljeno“, kadar išče združenje z Bogom. Če povemo s Pavlom, obstaja duševno telo** in duhovno telo, mi pa ne bomo umrli temveč se spremenili, kajti potrebno je, da si bo to, kar je propadljivo, obleklo nepropadljivost, in to, kar je umrljivo, obleklo neumrljivost.

Naj nihče ne ima za čudnega nasvet, da je zaradi kakšne duhovne bolezni treba k telesnemu zdravniku,“ trdi sv. Tomaž More. Na tem mestu skoraj parafrazira svojega srednjeveškega soimenjaka, Tomaža Akvinskega, ki pravi: „Ker sta si duša in telo tako zelo blizu in združena, da tvorita eno osebo, distenzija ene od obeh včasih porodi distenzijo obeh. Zato, kot bi svetoval vsakemu, ki je kakorkoli bolan na telesu, da se spove in poišče pri duhovnem zdravniku gotovo zdravje svoji duši, tako včasih spodbujam, da se pri določenih boleznih na duši poleg duhovnega zdravnika poišče nasvet tudi pri telesnem zdravniku.“

Tudi v teh petih zdravilih se uresničuje Jezusova človeška in božja obljuba: Vi boste žalovali, toda vaša žalost se bo spremenila v veselje.



* V filozofiji Tomaža Akvinskega sta si resnica in lepota veliko bližji, kot je to običaj v sodobni miselnosti, ki resnice v svojem diskurzu skorajda več nima, lepoto pa rada zamenjuje za dražljajskost. Po Akvincu je resnica lepa, lepo pa je lahko le nekaj, kar je resnično. (Op. B. C.)

** Prim. 1 Kor 15,44. Duševno telo bi glede na grški izvirnik (sōma psychikon) lahko prevedli tudi naravno telo ali živo (t.j. animirano, živalsko) telo. Angleški prevod uporabi natural body, italijanski pa corpo animale. (Op. B. C.)

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